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      Grinding technology of limestone with ball mills
             
      1. The limestone:    
             
      Calcium carbonate - CaCO3  
      Limestone can be:    
      * rich: 90-100 of CaCO3    
      * poor      
      Other elements: SiO2 (quartz), Al2O3, Fe2O3…
      Importance of SiO2 content (free silica) for:
      * wear rate - choice of alloy (balls and linings)
      * hardness - ball charge gradation  
             
      2. Different applications of the limestone powder:
             
      The main applications to grind limestone are:
       - For chemical industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industry, agriculture…
      => fine grinding (less than 1% residue on 90m)
       - For cement industry (to produce clinker)
      => coarse grinding (10-20% residue on 90m)
             
      3. Different types of grinding:  
             
      The 2 types of grinding are: wet and dry process.
      Wet process:    
       - The advantages are:    
      * lower specific energy    
      * simplicity of installation  
       - In Open circuit:     
      * the finished product is the mill discharge product
      * to adopt mill L/D = 3.5-4 in order to have a longer retention time of the material inside the mill
       - In Closed circuit:     
      * with hydrocyclones     
      Dry process:     
      Generally adopted all over the world.  
      At this point, we only will develop dry process circuits.
             
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