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      Cement European Standard (EN 197-1)      
      1 Introduction        
        - All the following documents have been consulted  to write this presentation:  
          * EN-197-1_en.pdf        
          * mortar-cementitious.pdf        
        * specifying-constituent-materials-for-concrete-to-bs-en-206_1.pdf    
          * fiche_conseil_nouvelle_norme_NF_EN_1971_2012.pdf    
          * CT-G56.pdf        
          * normes_160904_cle0f133d.pdf      
          * Leccion4.TiposCEMENTOS.pdf      
          * INSTRUC_RECEP_CEMENTOS_consolidada.pdf    
          * Cimento Portland e Adicoes.pdf      
          * 8_I CEMENTI COMUNI E LA NORMA UNI-EN 197-1_1.pdf        
        - These documents are easily downloadable copying the titles above.        
        - EN 197-1 is the first standard adopted in the framework defined by the European Construction Products Directive,
          which sets the rules for placing construction products on the market.    
        - This European Standard for Common Cements is a unique text, a common basis for all members of the
          European Union.        
        - European countries called this EN 197-1 standard with their national designation.  
        - Few examples here below:      
        - The European standard EN 197-1 describes common cements, as well as their composition, specifications
          and conformity criteria.      
      2 Cement types and composition      
        - The standard divided the cements into five types:    
        - Clinker which is (practically always) the main component is defined according three letters.  
        - These three letters are A, B and C.      
        - A, B, C specify the clinker content of common cements (excluding gypsum)  
        - Here is the detail according to the type of cement:    
        - The clinker itself is often defined by the letter K.    
        - Clinker is analysed in the following link:      
      3 Components        
        - List of letters that designate the nature of the main constituents other than clinker:  
        - TOC is the total organic carbon content.      
        - When there are several components, these components are designated in parentheses after the letters A, B or M
          for certain types (see after).      
      3.1 Limestone        
        - Limestone is a sedimentary rock.      
        - Its content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calculated from the content of calcium oxide (CaO), shall not be less
          than 75% by mass.        
        - The clay content, determined by the methylene blue method according to the European Standard EN 933-9, will be
          less than 1,20 g/100 g.        
        - For this test, the limestone will be ground to an approximate fineness of 5000 cm2/g, determined as a specific 
          surface according to the European Standard EN 196-6.    
      3.2 Slag        
        - Granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is formed during the production of hot metal by thermo-chemical reduction in a
          blast furnace.        
        - These slags contain at least two-thirds by weight of vitreous slag and have hydraulic properties when properly
      3.3 Silica fume        
        - Silica fume is a by-product of the manufacture of silicon and iron and silicon alloys.  
        - These products are manufactured in an electric arc furnace by reducing quartz with a suitable supply of carbon.
        - The silica fume is extracted in surface from the reduction furnace by fans and results from the condensation of
          the SiO gas.        
        - It is then recovered in a bag filter, before being densified to facilitate handling.  
        - The silica fume appears as spherical balls with an average diameter of 0,2 microns.  
        - The specific surface is very high and varies between 150000 and 300000 cm2/g.  
        - Silica fume shall meet the following requirements:    
          * The loss on ignition shall not exceed 4,0 % by mass    
          * The specific surface of the untreated silica fume shall be at least 150000 m2/g  
      3.4 Fly ashes        
        - Fly ash is obtained by electrostatic or mechanical precipitation of pulverulent particles entrained by the gas streams
          of furnaces fed with pulverized coal.      
        - Fly ashes can be siliceous or calcareous.      
        - Silicious fly ashes have pozzolanic properties.      
        - Calcium fly ashes have pozzolanic properties and can also have hydraulic properties.  
      3.5 Natural pozzolana        
        - Natural pozzolans are normally materials of volcanic origin or sedimentary rocks with a suitable chemical and
          mineralogical composition, ie siliceous or silicoaluminous.    
      3.6 Natural calcined pozzolana      
        - The calcined natural pozzolans are materials of volcanic origin, clays, shales or sedimentary rocks activated by
          thermal treatment.        
      3.7 Burnt shale        
        - Burnt shale, and in particular burnt bituminous shale, is produced in a furnace at a temperature of about 800 °C.
        - Because of its method of manufacture, it contains clinker phases and pozzolanic character oxides.
        - Adequately ground burnt shale shall have a compressive strength of at least 25 N/mm2 at 28 days.
        - The expansion (soundness) of burnt shale shall not exceed 10 mm.    
        - All these components are analyzed in the presentation with the link below:  
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