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      Separators in the cement industry              
      3   Static separators:                
      3.1   Introduction:                  
          - The static separator is like the cyclone a simple mechanical device commonly used in the grinding circuits to remove  
            relatively large particles from gas streams.            
          - Static separators are relatively inexpensive since they have no moving parts and they are easy to operate.  
          - Static separators (or grit separators) are used especially in the raw mill circuits:      
      3.2   Advantages of static separators:              
          - Low capital cost                
          - Ability to operate at high temperatures and pressures          
          - Low maintenance requirements because no moving parts          
      3.3   Main disadvantage of static separators:              
          - Low efficiency especially for very small particles            
      3.4   Principle of operation:                
          - The material enters with the air stream at the bottom of the separator.        
          - A vortex is created in the upper part of the cone of the separator because of the blades.      
          - The coarse material goes towards the walls because of the centrifugal force, slides to the bottom and leaves the separator.
          - The fine material exits through the top of the immersion tube.          
          - The fineness of the product is adjusted by changing the position of the blades.      
          - When the blades are in radial position (maximum of opening), the product of the static separator will be coarser.  
          - When the blades are adjusted in a more tangential position, the product is finer because the tangential velocity of the 
             particle increased and the cut size decreased.            
          - When the adjustment is higher than 60-70°, the particles tangential velocity decreases due to friction against the blades,
            and the cut size goes up again.              
            Click on the picture to enlarge    
      3.5   Mechanical parts:                
          - Conical section                
          - Adjustable blades (with external adjustment)            
          - Tails cone                  
          - Immersion tube (fines outlet)              
      3.6   Operating characteristics:                
          - Pressure drop usually around 150 mmH2O            
          - Shortening the immersion tube will give a coarser product          
          - Lengthening the immersion tube will give a finer product          
          - Leaving the blades in completely radial position will give a coarse product        
          - Adjusting the blades more tangentially will give a finer product and a higher pressure drop    
          - If the product is not coarse enough, it is also possible to remove blades (1 of 2 for example)    
          - Usual dust concentrations: 500-1000 gr/m3            
      3.7   Diameter calculation:                
          - The diameter of the separator can be determined with the following formula:      
      4   V-Separators                  
      4.1   Introduction:                  
          - This separator is from KHD Humboldt Wedag AG.            
          - The V-separator is generally used with a pregrinding system (Roller Press).        
          - Applications mainly for raw meals, clinker and slag.            
          - The main objective of this separator is to remove a maximum of fines particles from the Roller Press feed in order  
            to decrease the problems of vibrations.            
          - The V-separator is also combined with the high-efficiency Sepmaster to give the VSK separator. This combination  
            can be used (for example) for slag, the Roller Press being a finishing system.        
      4.2   Principle of operation:                
          - As its name suggests, the V-separator V has a V-shaped.          
          - The material enters by the top and falls on a series of inclined plates.        
          - The largest particles fall by gravity and leave the separator at the bottom .        
          - Intake air feed in the separator on one side and sweep the fine particles from the material cascading.    
          - The separation zone is therefore between the inclined plates and a series of deflectors inclined in another direction.
          - The fines go out with the air to the other side. See the design below:        
            Click on the picture to enlarge        
      4.3   Mechanical parts:                
          - Body                  
          - Inclined plates                
          - Inclined deflectors                
      4.4   Operating characteristics:                
          - In case of hot material (clinker), a significant cooling is possible.          
          - At the contrary, in case of humid material (raw meal), a significant drying is possible.      
          - The cut size (or fineness of the product) of the V-separator is controlled only by the airflow quantity.    
          - Pressure drop usually between 50 and 150 mmH2O            
      4.5   Dimensioning parameters:                
          - Specific feed loading: 4 kg/m3 (of air flow)            
          - Separator air loading by m2 of separating area: 6 m3/sec           
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